Campus does matter: The relationship of student retention and degree attainment with campus design
Abstract There are literally thousands of studies on retention efforts; however, the role of supporting learning built environment at campus-level is largely ignored. Using data of 103 universities with high research activities in the United States, we found strong positive associations with three campus qualities – (1) greenness, (2) urbanism and (3) on-campus living – and student retention and graduation rates, after controlling for student selectivity, class size, total undergraduate enrollment, and university type. We did not detect significant association between two other campus qualities – land use organization and spatial configuration – and the outcome variables. Overall, this research provides a new insight for university administrators, campus planners, and higher education researchers about the significance of campus built environment for retention efforts.
Campus score: Measuring university campus qualities
Physical campus characteristics can impact student satisfaction and academic performance.
Campus Score is proposed, representing campus urbanism, greenness, and on-campus living.
Campus Score has significant associations with freshman retention and graduation rates.
Abstract This research proposes an index, called Campus Score, which measures the main physical qualities of university campuses. Campus Score is composed of three latent variables representing Urbanism, Greenness, and On-Campus Living, with 10 indicators. This index has been calculated for 103 research-intensive universities in the United States of America. Two linear regressions show that Campus Score has significant associations with freshman retention and 6-year graduation rates. It is also interesting to note that, compared to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (Shanghai Ranking), Campus Score has stronger associations with freshman retention and graduation rates. The one-way ANOVA test and post-hoc analysis reveal that private universities, on average, have significantly higher Campus Scores than public universities, Research I universities have significantly higher mean scores than Research II universities, and universities in the Northeast census region have significantly higher mean scores than universities in other census regions. Exploring the relationships between Campus Score and university objectives, such as student satisfaction, safety, and campus sustainability, can give campus planners fresh insight into the impacts of campus form. Keywords Campus score; Freshman retention; Graduation rate; University ranking; Campus design; Campus planning
Cite Hajrasouliha, A. (2017). Campus score: Measuring university campus qualities. Landscape and Urban Planning, 158, 166-176. Chicago